Abstracts of №3, 2014
Evidence-based medicine: experience of ontological localization
The paper analyzes conceptual boundaries of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). The initial theoretical assumption made the idea of the French historian G. Canguilhem regarding «ontological localization» of suffering as a condition for medical action. For description of the modern medical localization of suffering was used phenomenologically interpreted difference between disease and illness. Reduction of the complex reality of human suffering to the category of objectively recorded and manipulatively treated body reality is a heuristically useful procedure (condition of EBM possibility). However, effectively care for patients needs to application of methods and approaches that take into account personal characteristics of the particular illness of the individual. Any universal norm should be used as appropriate, in a timely and proportionate to the point manner. This is the meaning of art, including the art of healing.
Keywords: evidence based medicine, narrative medicine, illness, disease, suffering ontological localization
Ambulatory-prophylactic approach in the sphere of mental health of children (memory of the patriarch)
Kremneva L.F., Kozlovskaya G.V., Krylatova T.A. Kalinina M.A., Golybeva N.I., Ivanov M.V.
The article introduces factual information about the life of outstanding psychiatrist of modern times, foremost scientist, the founder of psychoprophylaxis approach and a talented person – A.K. Anufriev. Special emphasis is put on his scientific research, in which an important part was given to resolution of the issues of social psychiatry. He is considered to be a pioneer of a new approach of the age related psychiatry – infancy psychiatry or early childhood psychiatry. It is the development of this area that allowed to move to a new level in prophylactic medicine laying a special emphasis on the fact that the initial presentation of early childhood mental diseases may be caused by both biological and psychogenic factors, for example by destabilization in the system “mother-child”. He also laid down the foundation for national primary psychoprophylaxis, that is still under development by his followers and successors.
Keywords: A.K. Anufriev, social psychiatry, ambulatory psychiatry, psychoprophylaxis, early childhood mental health, infancy psychiatry.
Some psychiatric-psychotherapeutic aspects of a freewill problem
Resume Will disorders are poorly reflexive, therefore they bear no direct relation to a freewill problem. Pseudohallucinations and syndrom of mental automatism are discussed. Phrase, borrowed from modern Russian novelist V. Pelevin « …until you allow to sound their voices in your mind…» is considered as comprehensive – both for normal and mental pathology – formula of subjective experience in freewill area.
Keywords: pseudohallucinations, syndrome of mental automatism, invasion
The problems of addiction medicine in Russia.
I. V. Yashkina, A. G. Gofman, P.A.Ponizovskiy, T. A. Kozhinova
The article discusses a number of problems faced by addiction medicine at the present stage of its development in Russia. The authors analyze the possible reasons for the current situation, when the actual number of alcohol dependent subjects in the population exceeds the number of the officially registered alcoholic patients. It’s pointed out that the evidence—based methods of psychotherapy despite of being the methods of choice for the treatment of alcohol addiction are used insufficiently. The reasonability of involuntary hospitalization and treatment for the group of severely alcohol- and drug-addicted patients and introduction of substitution (replacement) therapy in Russia are discussed.
Keywords: alcoholism, drug addiction, psychotherapy of addictions, involuntary hospitalization, involuntary treatment, substitution therapy.
Life in schizophrenia and without it in the pictures and images
E.B. Lyubov & N.B.Levina
Studies investigating indicators of recovery from schizophrenia yielded two concepts of recovery. The first is the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and functional disabilities (‘clinical recovery’), while the second describes the individual adaptation process to the threat posed to the individual sense of self by the disorder and its negative consequences (‘personal recovery’). This article gives existing measures assessing personal recovery from severe mental illness (i.e., schizophrenia) including objective measures such as symptoms profiles and subjective measures (e.g., hope). The narratives of self and illness of persons with schizophrenia suggest qualities of self-experience expressed within personal narratives are linked to symptom profiles and subjective assessments of health.
Whether the requirements of the law on data transmission about the hospitalized patient into the FMS of Russia bodies breaks medical secret?
The question of discrepancy of the legislation of the migratory accounting of citizens in a stay place to provisions of Art. 13 of the Federal law "About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation" and Art. 9 of the Law on the psychiatric care is considered. Jurisprudence is analyzed.
Keywords: migratory account; medical secret
The perception of schizophrenics and schizoid personalities for realistic landscapes
The perception of schizophrenics and schizoid personalities for different landscapes are viewed in this article. For this task we made a special psyсhosemantic differential (method of research) which lets us examine into such criteria of artwork as dynamics, harmony and perspective. The results of schizophrenics and schizoid personalities were compared with artists’ point and then the conclusion was made.
Keywords: perception, painting, art, semantic differential.