Abstracts of №3, 2013
The Breivik case and what psychiatrists can learn from it
Ingrid Melle (Oslo, Norwey)
In the afternoon of July 22, 2011, Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik killed 77 persons, many of them children and youths, in two separate events. On August 24, 2012, he was sentenced to 21 years in prison. Breivik went through two forensic evaluations: the first concluded that he had a psychotic disorder, thus being legally unaccountable, whereas the second concluded that he had a personality disorder, thus being legally accountable. This article first describes Breivik’s background and his crimes. This is followed by an overview of the two forensic evaluations, their methods, contents and disagreements, and how these issues were handled by the court in the verdict. Finally, the article focuses on some lessons psychiatrists can take from the case.
Keywords: Breivik’s case, forensic psychiatry, psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatry and the media
On understanding of evidential medicine in clinical psychiatry (Theses to discussion at the XIV congress of IPA of Russia)
Opposition of “categorical” to “dimensional” approach in modern psychiatric literature, assertion that progressive innovation of DSM-V and ICD-11 is transfer from categorical to dimensional “paradigm” is followed by discord and inadequacy of understanding of all these categories.
The real alternative is opposition of phenomenological and inductive categories and methods and the most urgent problem are methods of their combination in definite succession and different complex combinations, but not mixing in process of integration and synthesis. Modern computer technologies allow to analyze data in accordance with various research programs and alternative approaches, realizing the principle of something complementary and relying on monothetic (all symptoms of disease), but not polythetic (a part of symptoms from special list) categorization.
Thus, under the banner of simplification, speeding and reduction of pries all the bulk of outstanding methodological achievements of XX century is being ignored, which reflects sociologization of scientific knowledge and its substantial decline.
Key words: conceptual foundation of DSM-V and ICD-11, reciprocness of caterorical and dimensional approaches.
Is Rakevitch case alive and wins? (Right of patient to appeal against involuntary hospitalization in mental hospital)
Under the study are ways of overcoming gap in the Russian legislation regarding right of patient on his own to initiate court review of involuntary hospitalization in mental hospital.
Efficiency of application of psychological and pedagogical methods of correction of emotional violations at children with problems in development in out-patient practice
A.I.Kislova (Naberezhnye Chelny)
The article analyses the results of a several years’ usage of alternative (rather than medicamental) methods of treatment and rehabilitation of the mentally ill children. The usage of all types of art therapy (music therapy, fairy-tale therapy, photo chart therapy, sand therapy, and imagotherapy) as well as treatment through communications with small animals and hippotherapy in the practice of children’s psychiatrical department didn’t have a stopping action on psychotic syndromes in case of endogenous psychosis. It was aimed at softening of the schizophrenic defect in emotional and communicatory spheres, changing the distance of the children suffering from early infantile autism in their relationships with a mother and other children, as well as at development of children’s cognitive activity and skills. The author used not only psychological test estimating methods, but also a mathematical tool for estimating efficiency of the applied methods. The article may be useful for practicing child psychiatrists, psychologists and art therapists.
Key words: emotional violations at children with problems of mental development, art therapy, psychological pedagogical correction.
Psychoemotional features of patients with chronic anal cracks
E.A.Rogozhkina, V.G.Zaika, V.S.Groshilin (Rostov-on-Don)
The purpose of the work was the assessment of results of complex treatment of patients with chronic anal cracks in whom the anxiety and depression in the background of existing features of the personality were revealed in the preoperative period. The psychopharmacotherapy in a complex with surgical and conservative treatment allows to influence results of operative treatment, improving subjective feeling better of patients, reducing terms of healing of a postoperative wound, reducing percent of recurrence of surgical treatment of such patients.
Key words: anal crack, psychoemotional status, features of the personality, psychopharmacotherapy