Abstracts of №3, 2010
Law and ethics in russian psychiatry in the last 20 years
Yu.S.Savenko, D.G.Bartenev (St-Petersburg)
It is shown that in the course of the last 20 years there occurred a drastic change in understanding of the law and ethics in the Russian psychiatry. These notions, totally governed by ideology in Soviet time, commenced to gain the meaning generally accepted in the international practice. But since 1995 real path of this process has gone backwards. There is a great gap between the package of legislative acts and law enforcement practices, disregard ethics, human rights and Constitution. The leaders of Russian forensic psychiatry fully deny the use of psychiatry in political purposes in the Soviet Union, although it was the first from the five conditions of returning Russian psychiatry to the World Psychiatric Association. The IPA of Russia focuses efforts on protection of rights of legally incapable persons, introduction of institute of partial incapability.
Keywords: psychiatry and law, psychiatry and ethics, Russian psychiatry after 1990.
To the differentiated diagnostics of overestimated delirium and paranoid schizophrenia
I.M.Bekker, O.I.Nesiforova (Naberezhnye Chelny)
The concrete clinical case, making actual the problem of differentiation between endogenous illness (schizophrenia) and decompensation of personality disorder (pathological personality development) has been described in details.
Keywords: overestimated delirium, paranoid psychopathy, overestimated ideas.
Some aspects of pathomorphosis of neurotic obsessive-phobic disorders
An objective of the study was to investigate a modern pathomorphosis of neurotic obsessive-phobic disorders. The features of obsessive-phobic disorders observed in the 60-80-years of the last century, included the following: acute stressful events were the main triggers of phobic disorders; panic attacks consisted of autonomic symptoms and fear of dying from heart disease; intrusive structure of phobias; phobias could be replaced by obsessions (aggressive impulses, pathological doubts); active coping strategies with obsessive-phobic disorders; subthreshold depression was secondary to the phobias; treatment included phenothiazine neuroleptics and sedative benzodiazepines. The following features of the modern neurotic obsessive-phobic disorders are pointed out: exacerbation of phobias precede the combination of pathological changes in social psychological and biological background; panic attacks involve autonomic symptoms, conversion symptoms, social phobias and various hypochondriacal fears; predominate phobias of several means of transport; overvalued structure of phobias; passive strategies of coping with fears; dynamics is due to the expansion of avoidance behavior; depression appear as comorbid disorder; treatment includes serotoninergic antidepressants and anxiolytics. А pathomorphosis of neurotic obsessive-phobic disorders are associated with reasons such as illness, treatment, patient and social environment.
Keywords: pathomorphosis, neurosis, obsessive-phobic disorders, reasons for pathomorphosis, treatment of phobias
Critical thinking in the theory and practice of psychotherapy
Oleg Savenkov (Sydney, Canada)
There has been a growing need in scientific testing of psychotherapy techniques and theories due to their significant number, particularly when some of them are of questionable scientific value. Scientific methodology is the best method to test the validity of theories which the psychotherapeutic techniques are based on. Empirical testing of such the theories may lead to a drop in psychotherapy numbers, their refinement and improvement in treatment outcomes.
Keywords: psychotherapy, psychology, psychiatry, evidence-based medicine, critical thinking, scientific methodology.
Evaluation of hospital patients rights from their own and professionals perspectives
I.A. Byilim (Stavropol), E.B. Lyubov
Study indicates a deep divergence in aspect of evaluation of psychiatric inpatients rights from professionals and patients perspectives.
Keywords: hospital psychiatric patients, the right
Psychotherapeutic preventive maintenance of poststressful conditions at military men
E. Yu. Sokolov
The information on observed psychosomatic complications at the military men who have visited situations of fighting stress is given. Variants of post stressful psychopathological frustration are considered. For them not only treatment, but in the first turn — of their prevention, active use of psychotherapeutic methods is recommended. For this purpose it is necessary for psychotherapeutic service to train people in epaulets in ability independently in practice, both in peace and in wartime, to use competently psychotherapeutic methods for the purpose of revealing of own reserve possibilities. The last is а true barrier for post stressful frustration at military men.
Keywords: post stressful frustration, emergency situations, adaptation, an exhaustion, self-control methods.
A new way of suppression of experts’ competition in court
In notorious court trial against organizers of exhibition in Andrey Sakharov Museum both public prosecutor and judge used the demand which we have never heard. They refused to criticize the expert conclusion which there was in the case’s materials and even to call the name of its author.